Rainbow tables use a refined algorithm with a different reduction function for each "link" in a chain, so that when there is a hash collision in two or more chains, the chains will not merge as long as the collision doesn't occur at the same position in each chain. This increases the probability of a correct crack for a given table size, at the cost of squaring the number of steps required per lookup, as the lookup routine now also needs to iterate through the index of the first reduction function used in the chain.
Rainbow tables are specific to the hash function they were created for e.g., MD5 tables can crack only MD5 hashes. The theory of this technique was invented by Philippe Oechslin as a fast form of time/memory tradeoff, which he implemented in the Windows password cracker Ophcrack. The more powerful RainbowCrack program was later developed that can generate and use rainbow tables for a variety of character sets and hashing algorithms, including LM hash, MD5, and SHA-1.
SET-3G is the latest innovation in epoxy anchoring adhesives with high design strength and proven performance. SET-3G is a 1:1 ratio, two-component, anchoring adhesive for concrete (cracked and uncracked). SET-3G installs and performs in a variety of environmental conditions and temperature extremes.
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Tableau server is used to organise, edit, share, and work together on Tableau dashboards made on the Tableau desktop. It's safer for organisations because the data will only be seen by people who work there, and the administrator can decide how much control each user has. For example, a user might only be able to view the data, or only be able to edit it, or both.
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Industrial uses include hydrogenation (fats and oils), methanol production, hydrodealkylation, hydrocracking, and hydrodesulfurization. It is also used in rocket fuel; for welding, making hydrochloric acid, and reducing metallic ores; and to fill balloons.
High-intensity lights use scandium, and its radioactive isotope is used as a tracing agent in refinery crackers for crude oil. Scandium iodide added to mercury vapor lamps produces a highly efficient light source resembling sunlight, important for indoor or nighttime color TV.
One would think something as basic as reduced stiffness values for cracked reinforced concrete members would be clearly specified in ACI 318 for use in structural analyses; at least something that would be applicable to most structures for reasonable accuracy in results of analysis. After all, the need for using these values is near-universal in the design of reinforced concrete structures, especially for those subjected to lateral loading. However, a clear requirement in this regard is not given in ACI 318. As a result, engineers are often left confused about how to correctly model their structures. The question below, which we received recently, illustrates the point.
ACI 318 has been less than clear in this regard ever since its suggested stiffness values for cracked concrete members (now contained in ACI 318-14 Table 22.214.171.124.1) were introduced several editions ago.
What we have sometimes done is verify an initial assumption. A wall would never be cracked over its entire height anyway. So, we analyze a structure initially assuming whatever stiffness for a shear wall. Then we check the bending moments from the analysis under factored wind or earthquake forces against the cracking moment of the wall section. If the cracking moment is exceeded in the first two stories but not in the others, we would rerun the analysis assuming I = 0.35Ig for the first two stories and I = 0.7Ig for the rest of the wall height. If this analysis also shows only the bottom two stories to be cracked, we are fine. If cracking has spread to another story, we would run another analysis with I = 0.35Ig now assigned to the third story. This analysis almost always gives us convergence between assumption and the results of analysis. 2b1af7f3a8