Industrial Instrumentation and Control Textbook by S.K.Singh PDF Free Download, is a comprehensive book for undergraduate mechanical, production and instrumentation engineers. The book is designed for a single semester course on the subject, explaining the principles and then moving on to the applications. It discusses the various kinds of measurement systems, the standards of measurement in use and the measurement control systems used in industries today. This latest edition talks about power and energy measurements, sensors and transducers, and the applications of control systems. In addition, it progresses to teach students the basics of Laplace Transforms, Transfer Functions and Differential Equations, showing how these are used in the design of measurement systems. The book offers students a vast collection of quizzes and self-review questions covering all possible types so that students can prepare themselves in an organized fashion. The book is an indispensable resource for anyone appearing for GATE.
id="67117">[PDF] industrial-inst-by-sk-singh-google-bukpdf - WordPresscomIndustrial Instrumentation and Control Third Edition SK SINGH Head Maintenance Service Group (Electrical and Telecommunications) Tata Steel Limitedindustrial-inst-by-sk-singh-google-buk.pdf
To make sure that the extractions were successful and contained DNA, PCR control reactions were performed using primers designed to amplify the human GAPDH gene. These reactions were expected to be positive even in patient samples that were not infected with C. difficile, since all of the stool samples should contain human DNA. Each 25 µl reaction mixture consisted of 12.5 µl SYBR® Green PCR Master mix (Applied Biosystems, catalog #4309155), 0.1 µM GAPDH forward and reverse primers (Applied Biosystems, catalog #402869), 7 µl nuclease free water, and 5 µl DNA template. The thermal cycling conditions were as follows: 1 cycle of 95°C for 10 min, followed by 40 cycles of 30 s at 95°C, and 1 min at 60°C.
The next step was to use the platform to amplify DNA extracted from human stool samples. The concern here is that the ratio of target DNA to total DNA extracted may be extremely low. In addition, inhibitors present in extracted stool samples may negatively affect the HDA assay, by decreasing its sensitivity and or specificity. Extracted stool DNAs from 8 patients (5 positive, 3 negative by the cytotoxicity assay and confirmed with qPCR) were amplified in the disposable platform. For each three channel chip, one channel was used for the test patient sample, one for the positive control (commercial C. difficile DNA (0.5 ng/µl)), and one for the negative control. As shown in Figure 4(A), polyacrylamide gel analysis confirms that the toe warmer-Styrofoam cup platform was effective at amplifying the appropriate tcdA products from both stool DNA samples (#1, #2,#3, #4 and #5) and commercial genomic DNA, but no product was generated in the negative control reaction. In addition, as shown in Figure 4(B), none of the 3 cytotoxicity negative stool samples (#6, #7 & #8) amplified a product. The HDA on-chip reaction results were consistent in each case with the corresponding reaction in-tube (Figure 4(C)) and cytotoxicity assay. To confirm the integrity of the genomic DNA in the C. difficile negative stool samples, PCR was performed to detect the human GAPDH gene. ATCC C. difficile genomic DNA and nuclease free water were used as templates for negative control reactions. The expected human GAPDH gene products (Figure 4(C)) were detected in both negative and positive stool samples. Reactions containing the ATCC C. difficile genomic DNA and nuclease free water were negative. This confirms that negative stool samples contained intact genomic DNA. 2b1af7f3a8