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Dr. Dressler consults both dog lovers and veterinary professionals, and is sought after as a speaker on topics ranging from the links between lifestyle choices and disease, nutrition and cancer, and animal ethics.
Covering the roles of animal behavior professionals, normal development of dogs and cats, and the human-animal bond, the book includes correlations from human mental health care throughout. The book encompasses learning theory, preventive behavioral services, standardized behavior modification terms and techniques, and veterinary behavior pharmacology. Canine and Feline Behavior for Veterinary Technicians and Nurses is an essential resource for veterinary technicians to realize their full potential and become a pivotal component of the behavioral health care team for canine and feline patients.
Although animal trials are the most accurate approach to determine the metabolisable energy (ME) content of pet food, these are expensive and labour-intensive. Instead, various equations have been proposed to predict ME content, but no single method is universally recommended. Data from canine and feline feeding studies, conducted according to Association of American Feed Control Officials recommendations, over a 6-year period at a single research site, were utilised to determine the performance of different predictive equations. Predictive equations tested included the modified Atwater (MA equation), NRC 2006 equations using both crude fibre (NRC 2006cf) and total dietary fibre (NRC 2006tdf), and new equations reported in the most recent study assessing ME predictive equations (Hall equations; PLoS ONE 8(1): e54405). Where appropriate, equations were tested using both predicted gross energy (GE) and GE measured by bomb calorimetry. Associations between measured and predicted ME were compared with Deming regression, whilst agreement was assessed with Bland-Altman plots. 335 feeding trials were included, comprising 207 canine (182 dry food; 25 wet food) and 128 feline trials (104 dry food, 24 wet food). Predicted ME was positively associated with measured ME whatever the equation used (P
Of all methods tested, the NRC 2006tdf equations performed best, especially when using measured GE, with the least average bias and narrowest 95% limits of agreement. Further, although a proportional error was observed when predicting ME, the effect was minimal across the range of ME content in the wet foods studied. Therefore, we strongly recommend the use of this equation by nutritionists and veterinarians whenever possible. Further, although use of these equations is already recommended by FEDIAF, other regulatory bodies should consider making the same recommendation, ensuring globally-compatible approaches to ME reporting. Of course, one challenge is that many food companies neither measure TDF nor GE in their products. Consistent adoption of the NRC2006tdf would encourage more companies to perform such measurements in the future. Universal use of this equation would give veterinary professionals confidence when providing feeding advice to owners regarding proprietary food. Nonetheless, it should be emphasised that this will not completely resolve all challenges in actually determining daily food portions, not least given the variability in ME required amongst individual animals, which can vary according to age, sex, neuter status, husbandry, and activity [25,26]. Therefore, any estimates of daily food intake should subsequently be adjusted according to response, for example, by adjusting the allocation to ensure that bodyweight and BCS remain stable over time. Further sources of inaccuracy include methods used to measure food portions (e.g. the use of measuring cups ) and feeding extra food in the form of treats and table scraps . Therefore, to avoid overfeeding, owners should also be made aware of how to measure out food portions accurately (e.g. using electronic gram scales) and also about the potential impact of feeding additional food.
The study has a number of limitations that should be considered. First, although the number of available studies was large, some datasets were incomplete limiting the number of available food trials for the final analyses. Secondly, only a limited number of feeding trials were conducted on wet food during the study period meaning that conclusions about such food should be made more cautiously. Third, the studies were undertaken over a five-year period and only small numbers of animals from a single research colony; therefore, actual availability of ME in a diverse population of pet cats and dogs might be different. That said, this period was equivalent to that used for predictions made in the Hall et al. study . Finally, although foods from a range of manufacturers were tested, these were mainly those of established pet food companies that use conventional methods such as extrusion. Recently, a number of smaller companies have been established and recipes are now more diverse, including vegetarians and grain-free options, those using novel protein sources including insects, and also those using uncooked ingredients. Such diets often differ in methods of manufacture digestibility, and the extent to which they are nutritionally complete. Therefore, it is unclear whether the findings of the current study can be extrapolated to all commercially-available diets, and further studies should be considered to confirm the study findings. 2b1af7f3a8