Vitamin-R 2.43 
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Reduced bone mineral density (BMD) may be due to reduced mineralized bone matrix volume, incomplete secondary mineralization, or reduced primary mineralization. Because bone biopsy is invasive, we hypothesized that noninvasive image acquisition at high resolution can accurately quantify matrix mineral density (MMD). Quantification of MMD was confined to voxels attenuation photons above 80% of that produced by fully mineralized bone matrix because attenuation at this level is due to variation in mineralization, not porosity. To assess accuracy, 9 cadaveric distal radii were imaged at a voxel size of 82 microns using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT; XtremeCT, Scanco Medical AG, Bruttisellen, Switzerland) and compared with VivaCT 40 (µCT) at 19-micron voxel size. Associations between MMD and porosity were studied in 94 healthy vitamin D-replete premenopausal women, 77 postmenopausal women, and in a 27-year-old woman with vitamin D-dependent rickets (VDDR). Microstructure and MMD were quantified using StrAx (StraxCorp, Melbourne, Australia). MMD measured by HR-pQCT and µCT correlated (R = 0.87; p < 0.0001). The precision error for MMD was 2.43%. Cortical porosity and MMD were associated with age (r2 = 0.5 and -0.4, respectively) and correlated inversely in pre- and postmenopausal women (both r2 = 0.9, all p < 0.001). Porosity was higher, and MMD was lower, in post- than in premenopausal women (porosity 40.3% ± 7.0 versus 34.7% ± 3.5, respectively; MMD 65.4% ± 1.8 versus 66.6% ± 1.4, respectively, both p < 0.001). In the woman with VDDR, MMD was 5.6 SD lower and porosity was 5.6 SD higher than the respective trait means in premenopausal women. BMD was reduced (Z-scores femoral neck -4.3 SD, lumbar spine -3.8 SD). Low-radiation HR-pQCT may facilitate noninvasive quantification of bone's MMD and microstructure in health, disease, and during treatment. © 2018 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
The evidence linking vitamin D (VitD) levels and Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage Risk Factors remains inconclusive. Szejko et al. tested the hypothesis that lower genetically determined VitD levels are associated with a higher risk of ICH. They conducted a 2-sample Mendelian Randomization (MR) study using publicly available summary statistics from published genome-wide association study of VitD levels (417 580 study participants) and ICH (1545 ICH cases and 1481 matched controls). They used the inverse variance-weighted average method to generate causal estimates and the MR Pleiotropy Residual Sum and Outlier and MR-Egger approaches to assess for horizontal pleiotropy. To account for known differences in their underlying mechanism, we implemented stratified analysis based on the location of the hemorrhage within the brain (lobar or nonlobar). Our primary analysis indicated that each SD decrease in genetically instrumented VitD levels was associated with a 60% increased risk of ICH (odds ratio [OR], 1.60; [95% CI, 1.05-2.43]; P=0.029). They found no evidence of horizontal pleiotropy (MR-Egger intercept and MR Pleiotropy Residual Sum and Outlier global test with P>0.05). Stratified analyses indicated that the association was stronger for nonlobar ICH (OR, 1.87; [95% CI, 1.18-2.97]; P=0.007) compared with lobar ICH (OR, 1.43; [95% CI, 0.86-2.38]; P=0.17). Lower levels of genetically proxied VitD levels are associated with higher ICH risk. These results provide evidence for a causal role of VitD metabolism in ICH1).
OBJECTIVES: This paper examines the prevalence of behavioral risk factors for colorectal cancer (CRC) (e.g., red meat consumption, fruit and vegetable intake, multivitamin intake, alcohol, smoking, and physical inactivity), co-occurrence among these behaviors, and motivation for change among patients at increased risk. METHODS: The study sample included 1,247 patients with recent diagnosis of adenomatous colorectal polyps. Within 4 weeks following the polypectomy, participants completed a baseline survey by telephone. RESULTS: Sixty-six percent of participants had not been diagnosed with polyps before. Fifty-eight percent of the sample had red meat as a risk factor, 63% had fruit and vegetable consumption as a risk factor, 54% did not take a daily multivitamin, and 44% had physical activity as a risk factor. In contrast, only 9% of the sample had alcohol consumption as a risk factor and only 14% were current smokers. The prevalence of the six individual risk factors was combined into an overall multiple risk factor score (MRF). The average number of risk factors was 2.43. Men, those with a high school education or below, those reporting fair or poor health status, and those with less self-efficacy about risk factor change had more risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for multiple risk factor interventions that capitalize on natural intersections among intra- and interpersonal factors that maintain them.
Results: Serum calcium value was lower in patients with severe acute pancreatitis comparison to healthy persons: 2.18 (2.12; 2.34) vs 2.36 (2.31; 2.43) mmol/L (p< 0.0001), and the decrease of calcium levels was associated with an increase in the severity of acute pancreatitis. Therefore, hypocalcemia can be considered a reliable predictor of the severity of the disease. In patients with acute pancreatitis, the level of vitamin D was significantly low than in the healthy persons and was 13.8 (9.03; 21.34) and 28.4 (21.8; 32.3) ng/mL, respectively (p< 0.0001). 2b1af7f3a8